The Environment Protection Act,1986 is a piece of legislation established by an Act of Parliament of India. It came into the picture after the Bhopal Tragedy. The Government of India constituted the Environment Protection Act of 1986 under Article 253 of the Indian Constitution. The Environment Protection Act has 26 sections. The objective of The Environment Protection Act is to implement on the ground the decisions taken by the United Nations Conference on Human Environments. The provisions of The Environment Protection Act relate to protection as well as improvement of human environment along with the prevention of hazards to humans, other living beings, plants, and property. The Environment Protection Act is primarily an umbrella Act which is designed to deliver a framework for the Government of India to coordinate activities of different central as well as state authorities which were established under the various different legislation earlier, such as the Water Act or the Air Act.
The Environment Protection Act was enacted to achieve the objective of implementing both the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 as well as the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 in a combined way. The Environment Protection Act, 1986 was established after the Department of Environment was established in 1980, in India. Later, it became the Ministry of Environment and Forests in the year 1985. The Environment Protection Act or the EPA, 1986 was basically implemented after the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. The primary objective is to protect and improve the environment.
The Environment Protection Act was also formulated to safeguard the forests as well as the wildlife of the country, which is facing grave challenges and problems. According to the Section 51(A) of the Environment Protection Act, it is the responsibility of every citizen to protect the environment. The Environment Protection Act or the EPA is applicable to the whole of India, including the state of Jammu & Kashmir.